Link Building – Website Position 1 http://websiteposition1.com/ Thu, 02 Dec 2021 12:44:05 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.8 https://websiteposition1.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/website-position-1-icon-150x150.png Link Building – Website Position 1 http://websiteposition1.com/ 32 32 How Danaus Chang acquired 11 units, his advice https://websiteposition1.com/how-danaus-chang-acquired-11-units-his-advice/ Thu, 02 Dec 2021 10:31:02 +0000 https://websiteposition1.com/how-danaus-chang-acquired-11-units-his-advice/
  • Danaus Chang bought his first property in his early twenties.
  • He has since built a portfolio of 11 units in Texas and California.
  • His properties generate $ 160,000 in excess cash flow per year.

When Danaus Chang’s parents immigrated to Texas from China decades ago, they started investing in real estate as a way to create the kind of wealth their teaching jobs couldn’t provide.

Thus, the asset class has always been present in Chang’s life. His parents encouraged him to buy a property as soon as possible, and he did exactly that. In his early twenties in 2003, after graduating with a finance degree from the University of Texas, Chang purchased a 4 bedroom property in Austin, Texas with a principal residence loan, which are generally available at lower interest rates than investment loans.

But after making the down payment, Chang never paid another dime for the property. That’s because he moved into one of the bedrooms and rented the other three to friends – with whom he was candid about the arrangement – whose combined rents paid the full payment. mortgage, and more. Chang, who is now 42, said it was a win-win because he was able to offer them relatively cheap rent.

This was Chang’s first experience with “home hacking” – bringing multiple parties to life in a rental property – a strategy that would inform the rest of his real estate investing journey and help him scale his portfolio.

Home hacking

After living for a few years at his first property in Austin, Chang began working in the tech industry in San Francisco. After buying his first property, he started diligently saving money to move into other properties.

With his W-2 income, as well as the income he received from his four unit property in Austin, he was able to purchase two other properties in the Austin area (one with four units), as well as one in Fort Worth. In addition to the appreciation in property values, rental prices have also risen over the years, increasing Chang’s free cash flow.

Fast forward to 2019, Chang and his wife were looking to buy a property in San Francisco to live there. Instead of buying a one-unit condo, they were able to buy a large, multi-million dollar house in the famous Alamo Square neighborhood because they hacked the house into four different units. This allowed them to live in their accommodation for free, as the other tenants covered the mortgage payment.

“I was sort of looking at him, and I was like, ‘oh man, that would be so cool if I could afford something like that. “And I started doing the math, and then I talked to a mortgage specialist, and he was basically like, ‘If you rent out some of these properties, you can use that income against your W-2 money, Add them up and pool them, and you can afford to buy this multi-million dollar property, ”Chang told Insider on Monday.

“And that was a huge surprise for me,” Chang continued. “This is something I don’t think everyone knows about. You can hack your way even into large estates and multi-million dollar estates.”

In other words, Chang was able to qualify for such a large mortgage because he was able to show his plans to divide the house into units.

Chang and his wife have since moved out of the property and rented out their accommodation, further increasing their excess cash flow.

Chang’s 11-unit portfolio now generates more than $ 160,000 in free cash flow per year, according to internal records seen by Insider.

Why you shouldn’t be afraid of leverage – and how to use it

Some warn against building up too large a portfolio of properties. If an economic downturn hits, you could lose tenants and rents could go down, and you’ll be stuck with the mortgage payment bill, the argument goes.

But Chang, who recently co-founded a real estate company called Awning, doesn’t see it that way. While he said there are currently bad investment properties on the market with prices that have skyrocketed, investors should be well positioned as long as the properties are in areas of growing population and with high levels of population. good measures of supply and demand.

He cited Austin as an example.

“Even if you lead to this madness [in terms of soaring home prices] happening in Austin, there was a reason for it. It’s not only that Austin is a cool city … but there has been significant job growth, “Chang said.” Tesla was there before Elon. [Musk] even said he was going to move there. Apple had already built this incredible campus. “

He also said not to focus on cash flow at first, but rather on building equity and scaling up.

For example, Chang advised potential investors who have saved a large chunk of the money not to invest as much as they can in a down payment in order to maximize their cash flow. Instead, they should spread it over multiple down payments for different properties, he said.

“Rather than putting in as much money as possible, it’s good to be able to go into debt,” he said. “As long as the rents can get closer or cover the mortgage, it’s basically a free home after that. And then the rental income will go up, and that’s where your positive cash flow will start to happen. “

Once this cash flow increases, it will allow the investor to grow further as their income will be higher. The accumulated equity also enables options such as cash refinancing to buy more homes, also known as the BRRRR (buy, rehabilitate, rent, refinance, repeat) strategy.

Having more assets also allows for better business in terms of insurance rates, contractors and property management fees, he said.

“At the end of the day, if you’re able to leverage your portfolio, your assets, that’s how you start to see even more exponential growth,” he said. “But all of this can’t happen unless you start leveraging your time, resources, and money as well.”

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]]> Jack Dorsey’s departure on Twitter hints at Big Tech commotion https://websiteposition1.com/jack-dorseys-departure-on-twitter-hints-at-big-tech-commotion/ Tue, 30 Nov 2021 20:31:45 +0000 https://websiteposition1.com/jack-dorseys-departure-on-twitter-hints-at-big-tech-commotion/

“I don’t think there’s anything more important in my life to work on, and I don’t think there’s anything more empowering for people all over the world,” he said. declared. tell the audience at a Bitcoin conference in Miami in June.

Mr. Dorsey, whose oracular beard and quirky wellness routines have made him a cult figure in Silicon Valley, has become a crypto influencer in recent months. Bitcoin lovers acclaimed his resignation Monday, assuming he would spend his new free time advocating for their cause. (A more likely scenario is that he will continue to push crypto projects in Square, where he is already started to build a decentralized financial enterprise.)

Mr Dorsey did not respond to a request for comment so I can’t be totally sure what is behind his release, but it’s easy to see why he would become agitated on Twitter after more than 15 years of involvement. He cut his teeth during the internet boom of the late 2000s and early 2010s, when being a co-founder of a trendy social media app was a pretty good gig. You’ve been invited to sophisticated conferences, investors have flooded you with cash, and the media has portrayed you as a disruptive innovator. If you’ve been lucky, you’ve even been invited to the White House to hang out with President Obama. Social media were changing the world – Kony 2012! The Arab Spring ! – and as long as your usage numbers continued to move in the right direction, life was good.

Today, running a giant social media company is – at first glance – pretty miserable. Sure, you’re rich and famous, but you spend your days managing a bloated bureaucracy and being blamed for the downfall of society. Instead of disrupting and innovating, you sit in boring meetings and fly to Washington so politicians can yell at you. The cool kids don’t want to work for you anymore – they’re busy flipping NFTs and building DeFi apps in the web3 – and regulators are breathing down your neck.

In many ways, today’s crypto scene has inherited the loose, free spirit of early social media companies. Crypto startups raise tons of money, attract huge amounts of hype, and embark on utopian missions to change the world. The crypto universe is full of weird geniuses with unusual pedigrees and a great appetite for risk, and web3 – a vision of a decentralized internet built around blockchains – contains many types of complex technical issues that engineers love. to resolve. These factors, along with the huge sums of money invested in crypto, have made it a tempting landing place for exhausted tech workers looking to reconnect with their youthful optimism – and possibly CEOs, too.

“Silicon Valley tech is the old guard, distributed crypto is the frontier,” Naval Ravikant, another crypto booster and one of Twitter’s earliest investors, tweeted this month.

Square, which builds mobile payment systems, has always been the most natural outlet for Mr. Dorsey’s crypto dreams. But he tried to incorporate some of the principles of Bitcoin into Twitter. The company added the Bitcoin tip and launched a decentralization project called Bluesky last year, with the aim of creating an open protocol that would allow outside developers to create Twitter-like social networks with different rules and functionality than the main Twitter app. (Mr Agrawal, who succeeds Mr Dorsey on Twitter, has been closely associated with these initiatives, meaning they are unlikely to go away when Mr Dorsey does.)


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Shooting at Tacoma Mall: 1 person shot, sending shoppers scrambling for safety https://websiteposition1.com/shooting-at-tacoma-mall-1-person-shot-sending-shoppers-scrambling-for-safety/ Sat, 27 Nov 2021 12:14:00 +0000 https://websiteposition1.com/shooting-at-tacoma-mall-1-person-shot-sending-shoppers-scrambling-for-safety/
Tacoma Police Department said the victim was taken to a local hospital with serious injuries.

“People were fleeing, sheltering in place and stores were closed,” said Pierce County Sheriff’s Department spokesperson Sgt. Darren Moss told CNN.

He said the mall was closed as police searched for a suspect. “The scene is still active and we don’t want people responding to it,” Moss said.

Bethany Villero, who shopped at the mall on Black Friday, described a chaotic scene after gunfire.

“I saw people throw up, I guess they were so scared,” Villero told CNN.

Villero said she did not hear the gunshots as she left the Nordstrom store, but first learned of what happened from a group of young girls leaving the building.

“I heard them behind me, and they were crying and screaming,” Villero said. “A lot of people were coming out of Nordstrom crying and looking terrified.

“It was just chaotic, with people just trying to leave at the same time.… The terror on these children’s faces is the worst,” she said.

The Tacoma Police Department took unaccompanied minors to a nearby bus station for treatment. Moss said stores were closed as other shoppers tried to flee the mall.

Pierce County Law Enforcement Officers Helping Tacoma Police Search Mall, County Sheriff’s Department said in a tweet.
The shopping center houses more than 150 stores, according to its website.


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Construction omission leaves Belleville police staff in the cold – Kingston https://websiteposition1.com/construction-omission-leaves-belleville-police-staff-in-the-cold-kingston/ Thu, 25 Nov 2021 19:55:12 +0000 https://websiteposition1.com/construction-omission-leaves-belleville-police-staff-in-the-cold-kingston/

As winter approaches, some Belleville police and administrative staff will have to bundle up in their workspaces.

The police department recently applied to council for the installation of an insulating sheathing on the north side of its new head office on Sidney Street.

Last winter some of the staff working in this part of the building were forced to wear winter boots and clothing to warm up. However, Police Chief Mike Callaghan said the same request was made before the modernization of the new facility.

Read more:

Belleville, Ont., Council votes for a change in the city’s neighborhood map

“The decision was made not to put Kingspan insulation on the existing exterior walls to retain the original facade of the building, as well as to reduce costs,” Callaghan said.

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Belleville County. Kelly McCaw was in office at the time the decision was made. McCaw, who is now on the Police Services Board, says she only recently discovered that the siding had never been installed.

“This is something the old board I was on didn’t know,” McCaw told Global News.

“It has never been submitted to the council. There was never any discussion about discounts for the resort.

“We approved this $ 25 million budget on the understanding that everything would have been done as it should have been.”

Global News reached out to former Mayor Taso Christopher and former CAO Rick Kester to ask why council was never consulted, but neither responded to our requests.

Now the City of Belleville is planning to spend up to $ 360,000 to install the siding after all, when it would have cost $ 175,000 during construction, leaving some taxpayers furious.

“I’m not going to talk about incompetence, but it leads me to think of it that way,” Dave Daley said.


Click to play the video:







Belleville Police Unveil New $ 26 Million Headquarters


Belleville Police Unveil $ 26 Million New Headquarters – September 18, 2021

“I understand the need to keep things fiscally responsible, but we also need to take care of our police officers. So I think it’s a huge mistake on their part, ”said Heather Wilson.

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“We have homelessness issues and other more pressing issues,” said Shelley Dafoe. “A lot of money is going to be spent to fix this wall.”

According to Callaghan, there are two inches of insulation compared to the original construction 60 years ago, which still meets industry code standards.

There was also no indication from previous tenants that this would have been a problem.

“You look at the normally prudent person should have known – you couldn’t have known we would be facing the situation,” Callaghan said. “But we’re in this situation now, so now we have to fix it.”

There are two options on the table to add insulation to the north wall, which will be discussed at the next city council meeting on December 13.

© 2021 Global News, a division of Corus Entertainment Inc.

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You should be afraid of the next “lab leak” https://websiteposition1.com/you-should-be-afraid-of-the-next-lab-leak/ Wed, 24 Nov 2021 03:41:04 +0000 https://websiteposition1.com/you-should-be-afraid-of-the-next-lab-leak/

I asked Davey, as well as Elke Mühlberger, another NEIDL researcher, if they had ever been scared. Once comfortable with the pressurized suits, they say, they experience a sort of joy in the “privileges” of the job, as well as a confidence in the containment measures. For Mühlberger, in fact, working in a level 2 or level 3 facility is riskier than being in a level 4 laboratory, where the security protocol is so strict; the day before her second son gave birth, she told me, she spent the morning working with the Ebola virus in a level 4 laboratory. no cell phones, no email, no chatter – just pathogens and the white noise of the air swirling around his ears. “It’s really, really relaxing,” she says. Her work focuses on the most formidable threats on the planet, she acknowledged. But it’s in many ways an escape from the world itself.

Is this world better with or without high containment biolabs? It is not an easy question to resolve. The work that takes place there involves a significant degree of risk, which is why NEIDL, with its vaults, barricades and ramparts, including operational protocols, looks like a modern day citadel. Yet no amount of engineering, infrastructural or human, can reduce the risk of bad things coming out of biolabs to zero. On the other hand, without them we would run out of all kinds of treatments for diseases like Covid-19 and Ebola. For now, the world seems to agree that we need these facilities.

Next summer, the CDC will inaugurate a new high-containment laboratory complex on its Atlanta campus. One of the ambitions is to complete an aging biolab with a state-of-the-art five-story facility that includes two level 3 suites and six level 4 suites. These will largely be dedicated to the study of case fatality viruses. the most formidable: Ebola, Nipah, Marburg, Chapare. Construction will take approximately three years, followed by a two-year commissioning process to ensure safety expectations are met. The cost was reported to be at least $ 350 million – a significant jump from the $ 280 million (adjusted for inflation) that built the NEIDL facilities. Melissa Pearce, who will oversee the new lab, told me that she and her colleagues at the CDC have visited North American facilities in recent years to study current best practices and design ideas.

Ideas that are too much new will not necessarily be adopted. “When you’re designing a biosafety level 4, the idea of ​​using new technology tends to get you thinking,” Pearce told me. “It’s like the first year of a brand new car model – you tend not to want to buy it, because there are probably some bugs that need to be fixed.” So many of the improvements in Atlanta will likely be incremental. Some of the researchers on the planning team believe that the spaces in the current Level 4 labs are too tight, for example, so there will be more space in the new suites for workers to move around freely. A new chemical shower in the hallway will allow staff to disinfect equipment more effectively.

Talking to the folks at the CDC is to be struck by how close the next pandemic they think we might be – and how badly, if a little-known infectious agent explodes again in the general population, research on the exotic viruses in confinement there and elsewhere will be directing us towards therapies or a cure. This is also expected from NEIDL, where Mühlberger recently worked with the Lloviu virus, a relative of Ebola, which was first identified in bats in Eastern Europe ago. in 10 years. A group in rural Hungary extract small amounts of blood from local bat colonies, looking for Lloviu. If the virus is present, the group sequences and sends the genetic information to it. She then compares its viral properties with other pathogens to better understand the potential dangers. “We don’t know yet whether this causes disease in humans or not,” she said. “But if it causes disease, around 200 million people live in the area where these bats roam. “

When I asked Joel Montgomery, head of the viral special pathogens branch at CDC, if our knowledge of new pathogens is the result of improved surveillance or more viruses with more opportunity to spread in man, he seemed to think both factors were responsible. The ability to test new viruses, thanks to nucleic acid sequencing capabilities, is much better than it was 10 or 20 years ago. “But I think we are interacting with our environment a lot more now than before, and the number of people on the planet has increased,” he said, which also affects population densities. “And so we’re going to see epidemics – epidemics, pandemics – happening more frequently. It will most certainly happen. “

In addition, our high containment facilities may face threats hatched in laboratories as well as what comes from nature. Take, for example, smallpox. The CDC’s Atlanta campus is home to one of two Level 4 labs in the world that harbors the live variola virus, which causes smallpox and was declared eradicated worldwide in 1980. (The other cache is in Russia. ) Victoria Olson, assistant director of laboratory science and safety at the CDC, told me the lab keeps samples because studies using a live virus could help scientists develop diagnostics, treatments and vaccines in reoccurrence of smallpox or appearance of a similar poxvirus. Monkey pox, which has caused recent epidemics in Africa, where it has a 10 percent death rate, is already a serious concern; Alaskan smallpox was just identified in 2015. More alarming, perhaps, is the potential that someone outside of the world of known biological laboratories could concoct a version of a smallpox virus, using the tools of genetic engineering. Smallpox had an average case fatality rate of about 30%; Americans haven’t been immune to it since 1972. Synthetic smallpox – or even super synthetic smallpox, which could be deadlier than the original – isn’t much of an intellectual leap.

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Bamboo has been used for thousands of years in Asia. Now, it might help solve the construction durability issue. https://websiteposition1.com/bamboo-has-been-used-for-thousands-of-years-in-asia-now-it-might-help-solve-the-construction-durability-issue/ Mon, 22 Nov 2021 12:12:21 +0000 https://websiteposition1.com/bamboo-has-been-used-for-thousands-of-years-in-asia-now-it-might-help-solve-the-construction-durability-issue/

Written by Story of Rebecca Cairns; video by Gisella Deputato, CNN

In search of new ways to build sustainable homes, Earl Forlales decided not to look to the future, but to the past.

His grandparents, like generations of Filipinos, lived in a “Bahay Kubo” – a traditional one-story bamboo hut on stilts, indigenous to the Philippines. “Filipinos have used bamboo (for shelter) even before colonial times, for thousands of years,” he says.

Sturdy and flexible, bamboo is one of the fastest growing plants in the world: while soft and hard woods can take between 40 and 150 years old to mature, bamboo is ready to harvest in as little as three years. When processed and designed, it can last for decades. Realizing that the Bahay Kubo could be adapted to create a contemporary home, Forlales began to design his own bamboo houses.
After winning the “Cities for our future“Challenge launched by the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors UK in 2018, the materials engineering graduate turned his idea into a business, co-founding Cubo in 2019.

The company started production of its prefabricated homes in November 2020. The structures can be assembled in just days and are expected to last up to 50 years, Forlales said. He hopes Cubo’s modular designs and the use of bamboo can “help accelerate sustainable construction” while providing affordable housing solutions for the Philippines housing crisis.

Cubo’s houses range from 30 to 63 square meters, with the largest accommodating up to six people. Credit: CUBO Modular Inc

A contemporary cubic house

Cubo’s bamboo houses incorporate many aspects of the traditional “Bahay Kubo” including a raised foundation and louvers, a type of window shade that allows natural ventilation and light.

But Cubo gave the bamboo hut a 21st century upgrade, including modern light fixtures and impact-resistant polycarbonate windows. The Philippines is prone to earthquakes and typhoons, which is why the houses were designed with natural disasters in mind. Metal “typhoon links” are used as connectors between the walls, roof and floor panels, and the houses are further reinforced with poured concrete foundations, which replace traditional pilings. While this gives the structures a solid foundation, concrete contributes to climate change. Forlales says the company “is exploring alternative foundation systems to make our offering more sustainable,” but this is still in the research stage.

The company’s first project was tested very quickly: in December 2020, just days after the first two houses were built, the area was hit by a magnitude six earthquake. Cubo’s houses survived unscathed.

Using all available space, the mezzanine bedrooms and fitted furniture make the most of these compact homes.

Using all available space, the mezzanine bedrooms and fitted furniture make the most of these compact homes. Credit: CUBO Modular Inc

Cubo offers four different models, accommodating up to six residents. Each home is made to order and can be customized to include items such as solar panels on the roof, further reducing running costs and the carbon footprint of its residents.

The company currently produces six homes per month, but Forlales says demand is much higher and he hopes to increase supply.

“The Filipinos warmly welcomed the product because it is very familiar,” he says. “They realized this was an intuitive evolution for our local bamboo houses.”

Bamboo building boom

The construction industry has come under heavy criticism in recent years for its environmental impact. The use of materials like steel and concrete are significant contributors to greenhouse gas emissions, while the extraction of raw resources in particular stone, rock and gravel degrade landscapes and soils. This prompted the search for more environmentally friendly alternatives.

Is bamboo the building material of the future?

Cubo is not the only company to see the potential of bamboo as a strong and durable building material. Vietnamese studio Vo Trong Nghia Architects have used bamboo for several of their projects, including the Casamia Community House in the Casamia Resort in Hoi An, while Zuo Studio, based in Shenzhen, created bamboo pavilions for the Taichung Flower Show in Taiwan.
In Bali, Indonesia, architectural firm Ibuku specializes in large-scale intricate bamboo “buildings”. Since 2007, Ibuku has built more than 60 bamboo structures, including the Green Village, a sustainable community of 12 luxury villas and the Green school, which has a wallless campus located in nature.

While bamboo has been used to build small structures for thousands of years, “it is only now that we have safe and natural processing solutions that we can consider building multi-story buildings,” Elora explains. Hardy, Founder and Creative Director of Ibuku. While most of her projects use processed bamboo in its natural form, she adds that with advancements in engineered bamboo, there could be “skyscrapers and even entire cities that could be built out of bamboo.” in the future.

Ibuku specializes in sculptural villas, resorts and "green" bamboo school campuses.  The Arc is an educational building of the Green School Bali.

Ibuku specializes in sculptural villas, hotel complexes and “green” school campuses made from bamboo. The Arc is an educational building of the Green School Bali. Credit: Tommaso Riva / IBUKU

Engineered bamboo entered traditional construction at the end of the 20th century, according to Bhavna Sharma, assistant professor of architecture at the University of Southern California and a member of the intervention force develop international standards for bamboo building materials.

“Standards for mechanical testing of engineered bamboo materials are currently under development; however, areas such as fire resistance require further study, ”says Sharma.

As a strong, fast-growing and renewable material, bamboo could supplement sustainably harvested hardwoods, Sharma says, with the added benefit of bamboo plantations helping to restore degraded soils and lands.

From exterior structure to interior furnishings, Ibuku shows that bamboo can have varied applications in architecture and design.

From exterior structure to interior furnishings, Ibuku shows that bamboo can have varied applications in architecture and design. Credit: Indra Wiras / IBUKU

Help get out of a housing crisis

While durability is bamboo’s primary benefit, it’s not the only reason Cubo is turning to fast-growing grass as an alternative building material.

The Philippines is currently facing a severe housing shortage, with a 4.5 million homeless in 2021, and a deficit affordable housing.
Cubo produces three houses in his workshop every two weeks, then takes three to five days to assemble each on site.

Cubo produces three houses in his workshop every two weeks, then takes three to five days to assemble each on site. Credit: CUBO Modular Inc

Cubo houses cost between 649,800 Philippine pesos ($ 12,900) and 1.8 million Philippine pesos ($ 35,738) – which is roughly comparable to mid-range homes built with conventional materials, says Forlales. . However, it aims to bring down prices by streamlining production and increasing automation in the workshop. The company has also introduced a payment plan, to help lower upfront costs for buyers.

With bamboo growing naturally all over Asia, each country has “its own kind of bamboo that you can use for construction,” Forlales explains, creating potential for building cubic houses beyond the Philippines as well.

“In Asia, we have millions of square kilometers planted with bamboo. So you just have to tap into other markets where you can get it, ”he adds.

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Jay Last, one of the founding rebels of Silicon Valley, dies at 92 https://websiteposition1.com/jay-last-one-of-the-founding-rebels-of-silicon-valley-dies-at-92/ Sat, 20 Nov 2021 20:23:49 +0000 https://websiteposition1.com/jay-last-one-of-the-founding-rebels-of-silicon-valley-dies-at-92/

Jay Last, a physicist who helped create the silicon chips that power the world’s computers and who was one of eight entrepreneurs whose company laid the technical, financial and cultural foundations of Silicon Valley, died Nov. 11 in Los Angeles. He was 92 years old.

His death, in a hospital, was confirmed by his wife and only immediate survivor, Debbie.

Dr Last was completing a doctorate. in physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1956 when he was approached by William Shockley, who would share a Nobel Prize that same year for the invention of the transistor, the small electrical device that became the essential building block for computer chips of the world. Dr Shockley invited him to join a new effort to commercialize a silicon transistor at a lab near Palo Alto, Calif., About 30 miles south of San Francisco.

Dr Last was impressed with Dr Shockley’s intelligence and reputation, but was unsure of the job offer. In the end, he agreed to join the Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory because he was in the valley of northern California where he had spent a summer harvesting fruit after hitchhiking from his home. in the Pennsylvania steel region.

But he and seven of his lab collaborators clashed with Dr Shockley, who later became infamous for his theory that blacks were genetically inferior in intelligence to whites. They quickly left the lab to start their own transistor business. They were later called “the eight traitors”, and their company, Fairchild Semiconductor, is now considered the zero point of what has become Silicon Valley.